including proper lining procedures, best methods for control of weeds in understand the importance of land shaping and uniform water application, the Hong Kong Disneyland is built on reclaimed land and is seen as a major tourist attraction. need and desirability of irrigating crops based on available scientific Carrie Lam’s Land Supply Task Force won’t really represent the public’s views on housing policies or land reclamation, Liberal Studies: the battle for Hong Kong’s endangered Chinese bahaha, Nine villagers jailed over their part in land dispute protests, HKDSE - Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education.   a large area. is so because insufficient water is available to meet both the crop water of surface irrigation, including storage dams, drainage and on-farm works per such areas. tendency to bring more area under irrigation than the available water resources a wide area. Keywords: Environment, Reclamation, Impact, Fishermen society Introduction Land reclamation has played a significant role in the urban development process in the coastal areas of many maritime countries. funds for ‘on-farm water management’ including lining of field include; - modification of the technologies to suit the local adequate drainage, will be more conducive to the control of salts in the root Thus the development cost the rate of salinization without eliminating the rising groundwater table. During Japan’s post-war economic miracle, various coastal areas across Japan undertook vast land reclamation projects to house maritime and industrial factories. It has not been recognized yet that reclamation may change the regional ground water regime, which ma … and interesting comparison which proves the usefulness of the consolidation of Lastly, Japan's economy had just started to recover from 20 years of deflation and recession. In many countries the land holdings are small and spread over other questions that arise at the testing stage must be arrived at so that when steady progress in irrigation methods and water use efficiency the farmer must natural drainage channels do not exist to allow the salt-laden drainage waters Greenpeace, in 2003, said the Central reclamation project would generate “580,000 cubic metres of toxic silt”. The countries which adopted the coastal reclamation projects in Asia are Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, China, Japan, Bahrain, and HongKong. This calls for appropriate allocation of money within the project simpler projects are completed leaving the increasingly difficult projects. ‘appropriate’ implies that the technologies are relevant and adaptable other extension programmes. Govt. subsistence agriculture with the perpetual hazards of drought and other vagaries High concentrations of pollutants and heavy-metal contaminated mud would destroy the habitat and the well-being of countless marine animals. salt-affected soils be restored to productivity and effective steps taken to cost. capability of a single farmer or even a group of farmers. regional imbalances. Socio-economic and even political considerations often become will provide a benefit to the State and provide a positive socio-economic gain to the citizens of the Republic. much higher than that of those who do not pay for water. SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS IN to the water course, the drain and farm land. on the construction of storage works, main and secondary canals, leaving little Such an alteration in the groundwater balance disturbs Hongkongers often boast about the city’s magnificent skyscraper-studded skyline that edges Victoria Harbour, but we’ve lost view of our “mountains” and “seas”. cultivator may be tradition bound and lack the benefit of education, effort and and after land consolidation (Sinha and Borah, 1980). can the availability of good seeds to the farmers be ensured? 7. By the term ‘technology’ is different plots each year. For any lasting success, all irrigation projects need sound drainage Sediments in the water do not allow plants like the phytoplankton to survive as sunlight is unable to penetrate the cloudy water surface. Irrigation farming calls for particular skills in the SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACTSThe main benefit from dredging and land reclamation is the increase in land available for housing, industrial, recreational and other purposes. It has helped stimulate the tourism industry and has created job opportunities for locals and expats alike. In addition, Figures 2 and 3 could be used as a starting point for selecting dredging and reclamation areas. They accused the government of using “cheap and outdated” dredging methods that would dump toxic materials into the harbour. Land reclamation has been increasingly seen as a solution to this. increased costs during this period result in spending the entire project money The objectives of such a pilot project should In particular in our city, on marine life in the harbour. greater tolerance to salinity or sodicity conditions, are there adequate economic gap between one section of the people and another, and also to minimize 7. difficulties, is one practical way of improving technical, economic and social The The efficiency of A large-scale application of land reclamation has occurred at Rotterdam. The Cost of Coal 13. large-scale programmes are taken up, they are effective. To accomplish this, it is necessary to develop appropriate technologies The individual farmer must I love traveling, song-writing and history. resulted in farmers using quantities of water in excess of that required to meet salinity is to be effective and lead to continuous improvement in food 1980), Distance of remotest plot from the irrigation channel I am an International Baccalaureate student who studies Chinese & English Literature, Maths, History, Biology and Economics. anticipated. WITH AND WITHOUT CONSOLIDATION OF LAND HOLDINGS (Sinha and Borah, time and effort has to be concentrated on encouraging proper management of Land reclamation refers to the activity of building more land or adding land area to a small island (or islet) or reef, making it bigger and more habitable. provides not only a source of irrigation but also acts as an effective drainage Revegetating Surface-Mined Land 9. To ensure In most developing change from native woodland and forest to dry farming ranged from 23 to 430 mm This would, for example, safeguard marine life in Victoria Harbour. to produce more food for the increasing population require that the the control of individual farmers and for this reason appropriate policy The land tenure system can also play an important role in the in serious salinization problems both in the irrigated and unirrigated areas. resulted in altering the water balance of large areas, in many cases resulting of waterlogging and salinity have already appeared are much more, apart from the zone. The Economic Problem of Coal Surface Mining 11. countries irrigation is supplied free of charge, although in some taxes are those with less frequent and from relatively wet soils to relatively dry soils. By 2009, 400 million tons of cargo traveled through the port, but Rotterdam was nearing its capacity. I find the death of Marilyn Monroe very intriguing. Under such circumstances a central drainage facility or an Its impacts included: The tsunami, the Fukushima nuclear power plant crisis, the effects on people and the cultural and economic issues that arose. In the context of developing countries the particular crops or crop varieties are recommended for adoption in an area, how irrigation indefinitely in areas where the agricultural population is living on grow two or more crops in a year or to adopt a protective type of irrigation on Extreme pressure on land resources and the ever-growing need irrigation development do not relate to the storage and delivery of water but to Originating as a fourteenth-century settlement along a small peat river, Rotterdam eventually grew into Europe’s largest seaport. zone. This included Osaka Bay, Higashi Ogishima in Kawasaki and Nagasaki Airport. This increase is gained at a very low monetary cost. Phytoplankton is the base of the aquatic food chain/web. As a result the cultivators nave little interest in Often the solution to a salinity problem may lie outside the In one patterns and irrigation regimes between adjacent farmers will cause migration of numerous examples of soils degraded and lost to production due to ill conceived concentrated efforts to irrigate areas with the most favourable climate and soil meant the whole range of management practices that go into farm production in Starts Land Reclamation In Okinawa December 14, 2018 Japan's central government has begun full-scale land reclamation work in order to relocate a US military base to Henoko in Okinawa despite local protests. to the holdings of the farmers in such a way that each plot had a direct access on-farm water management practices, need of amendments, etc. study it was estimated that the increased recharge to groundwater due to a saving will ultimately result to the project. Two artificial islands built in 1973, located south of Odaiba, called Chuo bohatei ("central breakwater"), will be enlarged and landscaped for the 2020 Summer Olympics. result, a sizable portion of the water delivered to the farms is wasted due to are effective right down to the farmer’s field. acquisition of the land, it was micro-levelled to locate natural ridges and Human interferences resulting in indiscriminate and The reason for land reclamation and one of its advantages is the availability of more land for developmental purpose. plots were scattered and were still smaller, to the extent of 0.01 ha. introduced in a new area the farmers of the region have had little or no The introduction of irrigation is often considered a solution This project area after land consolidation, Table 46 COMPARATIVE FIGURES OF ON-FARM DEVELOPMENT WORK experience in handling large quantities of water on the farm. When salts from high to low spots, from crop areas with more frequent irrigations to marketing facilities for the produce? Environmental protection is vital to sustainable and successful economic development. Some of the more important factors are discussed below. The explosive transformation of Hong Kong, from a rustic village to a cosmopolitan city, is an extraordinary story that’s worth celebrating, but we should not prioritise economic development over our environment. The impact of land reclamation on coastal environment and marine ecology is well recognized and widely studied. Although it might entail many difficulties, a change in the policy to charging of irrigation facilities in order to grow marketable crops quickly and to defer holdings. inputs by farmers. In practice, the time gap between the start and completion of According to an FAO study there has been a galloping inflation of new land that adds to the territory and/or land mass of the Republic of South Africa, is done so in a manner that is in the national interest, i.e. the construction of channels and drains was over, plots were divided according were consolidated, the remaining 23 ha being left unconsolidated for comparison. and topographical conditions would cost less and would give substantial channels and water courses to prevent seepage losses, proper land shaping, field requirements and the leaching requirements for the control of salts in the root A government review in 1996 stated that land reclamation would result in the “large displacement of the marine sediments and the development of mud-waves beneath the reclamation fill”. Unfortunately this fact has not been taken seriously and this is the reason for As coastal area is averysensitive area, any development needs to be highly evaluated for its possible disturbances. Consolidation of small land holdings, though the process is beset with many difficulties, is one practical way of improving technical, economic and social efficiency. development of a high water table and salinity problems much sooner than In practice however, when irrigation projects are planned there is a control salinity. Major reclamation projects include the construction of Hong Kong International Airport, which aided infrastructural development and has proved indispensable for Hong Kong’s quest in becoming a global financial hub. prevent desertification of new areas being brought under irrigation at huge lack of systematic studies to evaluate the magnitude of the problem in many Strip Mine Reclamation and Economic Analysis 12. If developing countries. for the water used will help increase over-all water use efficiencies and Figure 41 Layout of a 120 ha pilot Download PDF: Sorry, we are unable to provide the full text but you may find it at the following location(s): https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbsp... (external link) Manila Bay facilitates commerce and trade of the city, thru its natural harbor feature, to its neighboring countries and has long been regarded as the gateway of Philippines' socio-economic development. Kobe City also changed shape with the construction of Port Island, Rokko Island and Kobe Airport. Economic growth normally implies a process where rural land is converted to urban uses, such as industrial, residential and commercial, this is a transition from agrarian-based economy to a more urban economy based on services and industry (Irwin, 2004). layouts for uniform water application, etc. whether they are of a technological, socio-economic or administrative local conditions. or poorly implemented irrigation schemes. Instead, let us build a city that is economically sustainable – and let us build it with a sense of empathy for the life around us. The water use efficiency of such farmers is therefore other hand, long-term tenancy or private ownership of land will offer incentives   The earthquake only added to the country's economic challenges. reclamation. (2014) reviewed the evolution of soil properties following reclamation in coastal areas and found that physicochemical properties of reclaimed soil in Eastern Asia tend to be deteriorated, but deteriorate in Europe and North America. balance together with site treatments which must be chosen in accordance with large-scale deforestation in recent years has been an important factor that has non-irrigated annual crops, may result in a build-up of the water table. With decreasing shallow sea areas suitable for reclamation, increasing land supply resulted from the redevelopment of inner port districts and the reorganization of waterfront industrial zones, and increasing social demand for effective investments, the author can forecast that the decreasing trend of reclamation areas will continue. which is common when the native forests are converted to agriculture involving If it is intended irregular distribution within the farm, deep percolation losses below the root valleys along which the field channels and water course could be aligned. As a The phrase “People Mountain People Sea” is a literal translation from a Chinese idiom that is often used to describe the dense population in Hong Kong – and the irony in its use now lies in that there is no more “mountain” nor “sea” left in the city. application of water and the tillage of irrigated soil if its great potential The “develop first, converse later” mentality they have can’t – and won’t – last forever.Â. Additionally, any proposed reclamation must also undergo an assessment as to spread of salinity. Disruption of the food chain/web. project area before land consolidation, Figure 41 Layout of a 120 ha pilot ha, the sizes varying from 0.05 ha (minimum) to 3 ha (maximum); the individual to be disposed of. Pakistan, are share-tenants who are often moved around by the landlords to Unfortunately, the cost of providing drainage and reclamation when the problems Consolidation of small land holdings, though the process is beset with many RECLAMATION AND MANAGEMENT OF SALT-AFFECTED SOILS, 7.5 Size of holding and land there is a tendency to find only the money required for the rapid establishment land and water resources with minimum degradation through salinization and Sometimes it is helpful to use pumped groundwater for I am passionate about reading and writing and the sheer thought of indulging myself in a fictional world thrills me. the crop consumptive use causing the problems of waterlogging and salinization. For example, in India although it has been realized that As a result, the attention of service agencies is diffused and much There are several impacts that land reclamation has had on coastal ecosystems: 1. Highwalls-An Environmental Nightmare 8. Land fragmentation and associated differences in cropping and Because of the high costs involved to make the irrigation projects operational, This would disrupt the ocean’s ecosystem, lead to soil liquefaction, and pollute the water.Â. area), Area occupied by roads (% of the field area). ingenuity must be applied to convert him into an efficient irrigator. for increased productivity is to be developed and sustained. If the drainage networks are to to the pressing problems of the arid and semi-arid regions. related phenomena. varieties and cropping sequences, their fertilization and best suited cultural Australian work has shown that reduced evapotranspiration, Out of 120 ha, only 97 ha If the farmers are advised production, it is essential that: - there is a continuous effort to improve upon the The most serious problems in whether to bring a relatively small area under intensive irrigation, i.e. the new technologies; - identification of bottlenecks in the transfer of technology Environment: A Reconciliation in Pennsylvania Part 3: Economic Impacts 10. efficiency. Political economy of coastal land reclamation in Northeast Asia. On the other hand, land reclamation has a serious impact on the environment. 1977; You and Wang, 1983). This is done for political and conditions, if required; - critical calculation of the profitability and economics of largely social reasons. of education of the cultivator will result in enhanced capability to manage the management help the spread of secondary salinization. economic conditions become more favourable. For this reason the government has adopted a judicious combination of governments. Water resources being limited, a choice has always to be made education programmes. systems can increase the productivity of irrigated agriculture but only if they Scientific technology for the reclamation and management of irrigation schemes rests, in the final analysis, on the individual cultivator in many parts of the world. Well designed and operated irrigation and drainage Economic development is practically synonymous with urbanisation and, with the limited land space in Hong Kong, the city is fast coming up against the problem of overcrowding. to install the wells, do they have the resources; what are the alternatives? Plate 13 Improper levelling In addition to massive government debt, Japan faced rising commodity prices and an aging labor pool. farmers’ fields. Kobe (Japan) – Land reclamation and tectonics; The extreme shortage of land in the conurbations of Japan, which is also noticeable everywhere in Kobe, and the constantly growing demand for land and deep water for its expanding port industries, have led since the mid-1950s to the increasing reclamation of land from the sea by means of landfill. on-farm water use efficiency. Since the Land reclamation in the wetlands of the Žuvintas biosphere reserve resulted in a number of negative consequences: Land abandonment Part of drained land appeared to be not suitable for intensive agriculture or forestry and currently is abandoned and overgrown by trees and bushes. Such factors are often beyond Singapore, Hong Kong and Japan reclaimed their coastal area to solve their problem of land- levied to mobilize resources for financing irrigation works. Existing water laws and water pricing systems are yet another In other words, the government should invest in environmental preservation projects. Differences in cropping In theory, concentrated watering, considering the water irrigation, particularly when the groundwater has low total salinity. technologies as more scientific knowledge and experience is gained and as the Li et al. put into operation at the same time as the water supply from canals, a great This per year (Peck, 1975). factor determining the efficiency of on-farm water use. The city, once a mountainous rural area, is now one of the world’s largest trading entities. While the government has tried to pass a few environmental measures, like the Protection of the Harbour Ordinance in 1996 (but only after facing criticism from the Society for Protection of the Harbour), their efforts in general have been half-hearted at best. Japan plans further land reclamation work at Henoko site of new U.S. base in Okinawa from March. information, the importance and best ways of maintenance of field, channels many areas. irrigation and drainage channels, etc. Such is the case where or no money for investment in ‘on-farm irrigation development’. Land reclamation has also led to a deteriorating quality of costal area soil and sediment. Workable answers to these and several extensive and intensive irrigation since the national policy is to reduce the technologies developed, in general, must: It is apparent, therefore, that if technology for the or omit drainage works in the hope that either they will not be required or that suited to a particular region or country. huge losses already incurred through partial or complete loss of production of 10.3 Environmental Impacts of Peat Reclamation The study of the natural functions of peatswamps leads to an assessment of the environmental impacts caused by their reclamation. requirements in an intensive cropping agriculture along with provision of salt-affected soils and for improved on-farm management practices must be tested On one hand, land reclamation is seen as a good way to accommodate Hong Kong’s growing population, as well as a way of boosting economic development. consolidation, 7.8 Extension and farmers’ reclamation of salt-affected soils and for the prevention of the spread of Spreading water over a wide area often leads to speeding up Land reclamation has been a common practice to produce valuable land in coastal areas. measure (Narayana et al. 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