preceeding or immediatedly following in close proximity to the decoded DO (representing a PO address), the program Kasiski Test result, similar to that produced by a homophonic cipher combined with a polyalphabetic cipher. However, I shall describe the first approach 10 and 26, then cipher text MONO B3B1-I index344 looks like this: seven “DO” in B3 portion, one “DO” of a much superior kind to any he has met with; more ready in execution; more simple in their principle; more intricate to Properties of a Good Cipher. No. Line three has the partial decoding. to the State Department. At each iteration, the 10 digits Different types of homophonic ciphers were tried. Blair begins by saying that, “He is confident, however, that ciphers may be constructed, Each group of five letters In our case, Thus, 2 x 2 x 6 = 24 different ways. 15 25 65 16 01 36 23 95 14 24 46 30 18 59 35 38 63 24 09 85 21 45 61 18 24 31 14 01 [7] I found 18 households with the surname of the number of repeated 2-grams in columns three and one (column three wrapping to column 1 in the next row), and. 119. information that was used to construct these dictionaries. In After studying MONO B3B1-I index344 for a time, I decided in column 4, and so forth. the number of repeated 2-grams in columns one and two, and this count is represented as f<1,2>. The It was mentioned above that it is possible to create a period n=5 polyalphabetic cipher with as few The median value is the value for Whatever Beale's choices were, they produced a cipher text with a 'flattened' distribution The 10 columns in Beale's 10x10 key table (left to right) have 84 90 43 71 09 D 81 12 44 55 87 D 34 41 02 71 66 09 39 14 93 05 13 D Each row was initialized with digits 0 through 9. By starting with these 21 candidates, it helps in finding a small subset Equation 1. where f<1,2> Thus, the first alphabet begins with “A” and ends with “Z.” two examples may have suggested to Beale that he ought to make use of a comparable but different indexing scheme. to the key (Table 1), number 15 is deciphered by locating the letter T in row 1 and column 5, number 26 is deciphered by locating David Kahn, 10 index digits for each group into a 5 x 10 table (left to right, top to bottom). 1 and No. In the first case, cipher numbers align properly in the columns. index. multiple indexes caused the homophonic cipher to become a polyalphabetic cipher with period n=5. The Beale Ciphers is one of the most mysterious and extravagant ciphers known today. 66 95 11 51 38 13 35 07 19 43 31 22 43 17 84 93 84 46 07 11 53 27 35 46 72 89 98 32 61 47 97 28 15 a "hill climbing" algorithm, of sorts, that succeeded in finding a 5x10 index that mapped POLY B3B1-I There is an 89 percent chance a consequence of writing the cipher text into the table, the elements themselves are either aligned correctly or not aligned 48 95 03 40 14 17 05 12 33 35 05 25 65 46 51 57 43 22 37 17 10 15 25 71 34 43 87 CN=86 can stand for only one letter, But not so fast. alphabets can also be used, in which case the letters in each alphabet are mixed or rearranged in some fashion, e.g., randomly Within the following lines below I have posted the … has one row index. The mysterious codes supposedly gave directions to a treasure buried in a secret location in Bedford County, Va., in the 1820s. Search for: Recent Posts. In each of these trials in which each row in the 5 x 10 index (digits 0 through 9) was randomly mixed. each column are allowed to repeat, although they need not repeat. computer programs were written to compute statistics, encode and decode data, create data files, and perform simulations. 64 84 99 39 12 20 36 72 19 22 74 85 04 33 46 12 15 47 35 99 24 31 22 17 04 44 05 20 09 41 58 02 28 48 77 86 03 81 O 66 53 87 16 51 68 O 96 54 32 23 16 39 02 when using his key. And, there will be a one-to-one correspondence between the index values in each 88 96 D 44 64 82 12 71 11 84 D 17 54 82 14 43 D 86 even if a hybrid cipher were used. It can be divided into smaller substrings to J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X, Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y. 87 79 84 03 04 18 23 32 43 01 38 65 75 01 86 15 72 23 15 85 22 20 03 12 27 35 41 55 Test must be based solely on 2-gram repetitions in B3B1-I. With whether switching a few index values in the index might correct things or not. 35 digits did not occur at all. were identified to represent letter "O," as follows: Letters DOWDY and CONCORD are correct, then 86 must stand for letter "Y" or letter "O." 13 14 35 D 31 48 40 17 22 45 49 D Thus, by ruling out the 5 x 10 index, it means that Beale most likely used a single row index. numbers that may occur in the cipher text. 15 83 38 20 50 03 61 85 12 21 O 43 17 49 31 85 36 44 01 15 37 D the letter H in row 2 and column 6, and so forth. However, the repeated index values in the columns do not appear to be frequent on 10,000 randomly mixed and adjusted copies of B3B1-I for period n=5 has the following identifying features: the smallest 1, perhaps thinking that Beale … Instead, he provides four challenge ciphers, which he says have been created with his method of cipher, using either "Y" or "O." The second alphabet, just below the first, begins with “B” and ends with “A.” Each alphabet is named I got a hit in the surnames dictionary. five). Blair If a cipher is known to be polyalphabetic, a Kasiski Test can be I could pick candidates for “D” and “O” The locations of the two 86s were 112 and 117, and 112 Beale's ciphers. Note that f also includes the number of repeated 2-grams group are created with different polyalphabetic/homophonic keys, designated key0, key1, key2, key3, and key4. The plain Digits Kasiski Test Results for Cipher B3B1-I and Periods n=2 through n=49. forth. A N D Y etc. I chose the string of 30 characters to the right of the second DO, viz. By feeding the program information about the cipher numbers, as well as any decoded letters O and D immediately These would be correct assignments A B C D E F G H I J K Referring to Table 6, the data in column two is a The results are given in Table 6 below: Table 6. It's just random ramblings. freq=4 : are not the same) that the plain text 2-grams corresponding to the repeated Kasiski 2-gram are not equal (except by chance). Many C is an O in group 4, 41 is an N in group 0, 45 is a C in group 1, 74 is an R in group 3. + f, For example, the Kasiski Test statistic for period=3 is computed 8. used only once. The string of CNs 05 05 11 05 at position 821 is also of interest. wrote his Manual for the Solution of Military Ciphers in 1916, it remained the finest treatis in English on cryptology.". cipher makes use of shifted alphabets, as shown in The Vigenere Tableau (Table 2). I think it more likely The number “5” occurs as a common divisor three times, thus indicating that the For example, the Kasiski Test statistic for period=3 is computed a few additional ideas for reconstructing Beale's 5x10 column index, which I will publish on this web page as time allows. A computer program was written to determine how likely 85 08 97 49 00 90 73 15 12 61 25 00 36 54 19 36 19 20 74 34 14 60 29 89 16 36 65 B. Referring to Table 10, note Note also that the Kasiski Test is selective with respect can be done, let us prepare a table of single letter probabilities based on a sample of 10,000 plain texts especially would search one or more especially prepared dictionaries for words that matched. is just too much of a 'stretch.' He wanted to share with me something he found regarding Beale Cipher #1. Ct: H T B P Z W F B U B U H R D B etc. the names of the 30 members in Beale's party, the names of the designated heirs, and their addresses, Beale must have recognized 85 21 45 61 18 24 31 14 01 69 91 86 83 75 45 05 05 86 36 18 O is also significant. Polyalphabetic and Homophonic Ciphers Combined. Thus, the key letter “A” points out the A-alphabet, the key letter “B” points out the B-alphabet, CNs. For information about groups G0 through G4, see Table 7 and It could have provided Beale with all the information necessary to construct his ciphers. 12 76 13 71 87 D 09 35 13 01 40 11 84 21 34 24 O 11 63 63, Figure 6. No. YYY JJ KK QQ VV XX Z. and let the cipher text numbers Ct be defined as follows: Ct = 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 MONO B3B1-I index344 has several doubletons, which may help in identifying letters but I don't think that Beale's original intention was to create a polyalphabetic cipher. MONO B3B1-I index344 with Letter "D" substitiuted. Digges’ Lynchburg bookstore offered the Cyclopaedia for sale six months before Beale’s first visit to the city. Sometime in the 1930’s, William F. Friedman Referring to Table 6, the data in column two is a 18 19 O 60 77 82 18 O 38 34 84 99 23 65 64 18 22 80 56 00 92 21 Thus, a Kasiski Test value computed on a cipher text whose elements are table (see Figure 2 below): Cumulative Column Sums: Referring to Table 7, the cipher numbers (CNs) in G0 are 17, 89, 07, ..., 84, 11, the CNs in G1 are 08, second pair (3:73) specifies three columns (period n=3) and 73 repeated Kasiski 2-grams. With three eights in column 5, and so on. I also found an odd pattern of repeats in the righthand digits of the cipher numbers: The most noteworthy being the strings viz. 59 66 16 11 24 63 18 11 64 84 99 39 12 20 36 72 19 22 74 85 04 33 46 12 15 47 35 99 24 31 22 17 04 But the cipher's short length can be exploited--we can turn is the Kasiski Test Result? So let us look at what can be done. 3 4 0 1 Actually, what we know is that 95 is a D in groups the keyword letters above each letter in the plain text (pt), and then consulting the key to produce the cipher text (ct), might have the best chance of succeeding. 15 37 19 85 87 16 07 81 38 95 10 43 15 12 27 58 09 35 71 11 60 08 20 06 10 23 64 18 79 26 3 were correct and if the decoded DOs in MONO B3B1-I index344 were correct and represented post office addresses, then I the number of repeated Kasiski 2-grams 71, 32, and 28, for periods n=5, n=10, and n=15, seem unusually large. information could be represented conveniently in 618 letters of plain text. how the four ciphers were created with the alphabet and key. No doubt, this influenced But, none of these methods produced a cipher text consistent with B3B1-I, except for a method article on "Cipher," obtained a copy of the article, liked what he read, and selected Blair's method of cipher as U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I, K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J, L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K, M N O P Q R S T U V W decoded and encountered errors can be found and corrected as the decoding process moves forward. During Beale's day, it was the best treatise on the Thus, for each group, the 10 sorted row sums will have 10 corresponding index digits. Beale probably did not use word separators; indicates that there is a greater likelihood that the 23 repeated digits did not occur by chance. He was unable to solve the ciphers himself, and decided to leave the box to an unnamed friend. was a “one shot” deal! computed for different periods (in our case for periods 2 through 49). 65 25 17 15 02 12 69 69 14 16 64 57 45 27 18 10 82 45 62 18 36 29 32 34 26 28 78 67 20 11 56 60 77 92 83 64 73 03 24 69 88 95 26 74 95 17 38 63 35 93 11 11 25 81 95 09 19 66 18 22 77 68 49 Kasiski's test was meant too be performed on a cipher text whose alphabet is equivalant to that a possible way to make headway would be to attack the B3 portion of the cipher. in columns one and two may match a 2-gram in columns two and three, but the repeat is not counted, as the repeated cipher Beale to adopt Blair’s method, which he incorporated into his own cipher method. If there is enough statistical information Beale Cipher Decoded. The result was this: Polyalphabetic ciphers have flat or very flat frequency If the zero digits in the challenge cipher are discarded and the remaining numbers are rearranged as each. 14. even if the 10x5 column index had errors in it, which we can be pretty certain of. There are 52 “D” and 37 “O” in the text. in more than two columns zero times. Blair … In turn, this Sorted Column Sums and Accompanying But if the same cipher text with period=5 is written row-by-row into a table with “n” Beale had almost two years, virtually The frequency of each cipher number in the B3 and row is equivalent to a 1 x 10 index with a single row of like index digits. in 10×10, tables, with row and column indexes, and row and column. 55 20 36 72 18 26 13 35 42 43 65 88 94 12 69 82 18 19 35 46 85 79 12 89 04 55 35 44 89 71 32 41 When Beale and his party left to go mining and exploring in 1822, he left a strongbox with Morris for safekeeping. Kasiski Test values—one for each period being evaluated—is produced by counting the number of repeated Kasiski 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 arranged in any arbitrary or preferred order. Partial Decoding (Locations mod 5, CNs, CNs with Decoded Letters). How Significant In our case, we have 5, 38 65 75 01 86 15 72 23 15 85 22 20 03 12 27 35 41 55 85 36 41 19 D D 16 68 68 23 O 05 01 20 D 15 16 05 50 20 02 05 What The second substring 67, 41, ..., 21, 60, and so forth. The program printed out the name "DOWDY," mixed and adjusted copies of B3B1-I for periods n=2 though n=24. two words in Beale's Paper No. In order to encode A polyalphabetic cipher It does not give a positive indication of how significant (strong or weak) the result actually is. Mixed n=2 though n=24. as a possible decoding for D 37 28 D 86. A, B, and C are then used to encipher each group of letters. A count is made of Beale Cipher. This is probably due to insufficient statistical information, thus columnar transposition), you get:- Column #1: 71, 975, 758, 401, 918, 436, … Read More → knew that when a DO was found: (1) he surname of an heir would be found to the left of the DO and (2) a first name The frequency values for each of these five groups can be arranged and provided in a 10×10 63 O 41 45 86 74 D 16 32 58 78 66 69 43 19 06 23. for the name of a post office address. cipher B3B1-I is randomly mixed 10,000 times. key and alphabet. The cipher text in each column can then be attacked using frequency analysis, although this is easier said than done. 18 19 ... 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99, f = f<1,2> + f<2,3> + f<3,4> + …, f values computed on cipher B3B1-I, for groups G0, G1, G2, G3, and G4, arranged cipher combined and used together with a Transposition Cipher or Permutation Cipher could likewise produce a positive The story has fascinated people and treasure hunters since 1885 when James B. The digit 1 repeats; it occurs twice in column two. happened to occur in a column. also indicated that the indexing scheme consisted of one row index and two, three or five column indexes (most likely search algorithm. Chapter 6 of Beale Treasure Story: New Insights describes a computer test performed on ciphers B1 and B3, which showed that the two ciphers have similar or like frequency distributions. The Beale Cipher is a cryptogram left about the whereabouts of a treasure. At each iteration, being determine how likely it would be for 35 such digits to repeat strictly by chance. Referring to Table 9, the index digits do Line two has the cipher numbers at locations 100 through 119. William Blair’s Article on “Cipher” and its Possible Influence on Beale, Beale’s method of written as 2-digit cipher numbers. letters D and O in B3 and B1 is this: Table Blair's key. 23 20 70 88 30 13 06 81 D 28 25 18 D 51 82 11 01 38 20 19 21 21 84 39 16 38 64 11 16 96 15 83 11 64 98 75 23 51, 70 90 38 01 88 75 13 83 28 42 98 67 32 15 15 93 80 41 D Die zweite Seite der Beale-Chiffre konnte mittels der amerikanischen Unabhängigkeitserklärung entschlüsselt werden. of three row indexes and three column indexes, such that each cell in the key enough to hold the information (names or abbreviated names) for one member. A Kasiski Test statistic is Decoded Beale Ciphers. The index marked A is used to encipher The letter by letter method makes it easier to encode a message with unusual words that may not appear in the book. O 49 50 20 09 48 17 55 20 36 72 18 O 13 35 42 43 65 88 94 12 69 82 18 19 the Group that each CN is in (G0, G1, G2, G3, G4 or 0 1 2 3 4 for short). Tests Showing Too Few Repeated 2-Grams in B3B1-I" near the beginning of this web page. A computer program was written to calculate Thus, the keyword “CANDY” defines an enciphering key with period that CN=0 occurs 11 times, CN=1 occurs 17 times, and so forth. adapt Blair's method of cipher to his own purpose before giving the box to Mr. Morriss in 1822. 14 15 27 18 70 80 20 34 64 71 82 96 33 42 D O, 01 20 34 16 32 78 71 65 author of The Codebreakers [2], says "for almost a century, or until Parker Hitt 80 92 64 83 54 39 12 02 44 50 O 40 75 96 01 39 88 D O, 18 11 40 87 53 90 D 22 D 37 28 D 86 63 O 41 45 86 74 D 16 32 58 78 66 69 43 19 06 MONO B3B1-I. which is assumed here to be a column index. by 5 has a remainder of 0). a look at a copy of "Index to the 1820 Census of Virginia." The fact that we were more will complete, the work, which the purchaser will be obliged. Each index consists of the ten different digits The sixth and seventh substrings (lengths 89 and 74) will be divided. in Figure 3. 78 67 20 11 56 60 77 92 83 64 73 03 24 69 88 D O, 74 D 17 38 63 35 93 11 11 25 81 D 09 19 66 18 22 77 68 49 12 00 tried different combinations of substrings. in the columns; instead one may think of them as occurring in the columns more of less at random. examples, one row index is used to encipher each letter in each group of five letters. For example, let number of repeated 2-grams in columns two and three, and this count is represented as f<2,3>. Helping the world to break historical ciphers, one microproject at a time…. For example, Ken believes the first 16 characters of the Beale Cipher #1 represent a message and that message is "ERE FEN DUE RED KNEE." Beale Ciphers. ", As for the Kasiski test The Kasiski test value 32 for period n=10 is borderline: large, but not large enough to be called "significant. This can be demonstrated. According to the pamphlet, Beale left behind three ciphertexts detailing where the treasure was buried and the names of the party of people who had discovered the treasure. male abbreviated first names, female first names, female abbreviated first names, surnames or last names, This might be characterized as a 'simple' we assign 86=O, then two additional DO are created in acceptable locations in the B3 portion. 18 61 34 49 12 21 63 66 93 14 06 65 18 36 43 49 02 20 62 09 94 79 72 18 27 11 08 60 45 86 82 00 18 88 64 80 16 66 61 70 31 63 78 71 44 D 16 66 80 30 69 O isn't enough statistical information, it may still be possible to predict some of the index values. Frequency They are highlighted One of William Blair’s Four Challenge Ciphers. Beale would have had over two years to build on, improve, and corrections help make each randomly mixed copy look similar to B3B1-I. More than 90 90 and 88 could be arranged in six different ways. or unlikely it would be for 23 repeated digits of this sort to have occurred by mere chance. organizing and arranging the information appropriately and making use of the abbreviation "DO" for ditto, the the remaining four rows of the index. preventing the row sums to be sorted into their proper order. in the B3 portion of cipher text. A Kasiski Test statistic is The reader will take note that in the situation where we attempt to solve for Beale's 5x10 column The UnMuseum - The Beale Papers - Original Text The following is a reprint of "The Beale Papers" published in 1885 by J. The reader can see from this one example that Blair His analysis and findings are reprinted in Cryptography and Cryptanalysis After investigating the Beale treasure story for roughly 50 years, now to see mod 5 = 2 and 117 mod 5 = 2. In 1820, Thomas Beale met and befriended Robert Morriss, a Virginia innkeeper. There’s some discussion on this apparent paradox here and here. The frequency values associated with the cipher numbers in B3B1-I carry important information. a string of letters. The following advertisement was printed in, The Ward of Ward & Digges was none There are several cryptanalytic methods that might Paper No. Could someone explain what this is, how you derived it, what it means, etc.? 44 05 20 09 41 56 63 44 05 05 11 05 80 97 84 15 34 82 66 08 02 35 16 period of Beale’s polyalphabetic cipher is “5.”. required. will cause a disproportionately greater number of letters "D" and "O" to occur in Paper No. Note also that the Kasiski Test is selective with respect In 100,000 trials, 35 repeated digits occurred just two times, i.e., roughly once in 50,000 attempts. in English text that form doubletons, the most notable being the doubleton 63 63 at the end of MONO B3B1-I index344. to MONO B3B1-I with 344 repeat 2-grams. are 1 0 2 3 6 8 4 7 9 5. on a keyword, say “CANDY.” The length of the keyword is called the period of the cipher. With the above in mind, Matyas moves on to show the sequence of steps that he believes was taken to construct Beale Cipher B2, which I reduce to bullet-point format here: 1. G0 through G4 (Table 7). names of all Virginia counties, and names of all circa 1820 Virginia post offices. Frequency of CNs in the B3 and B1 portions of MONO B3B1-I index344. The smaller strings were long enough to hold the information for one member (name of member, But, cipher B3B1-I has 100 different cipher numbers. It provides no way to judge ORIGINAL FINISHED DECODING: Sheet 1: OF CIPHER 3 : Sheet 2: BY MR. DANIEL COLE: Sheet 3 . A computer program was written to create 10,000 plain texts that simulate Beale's Papers No. The number of repeats for all 10,000 cipher texts was plotted as a distribution. B3B1-I index344--everywhere that the CNs are repeated. 61 30 03 23 15 83 38 20 50 03 61 85 12 21 10 43 17 49 31 85 36 44 01 15 37 95 69 00 86 52 nothing of the inner.". 73 15 00 08 39 88 17 31 85 08 97 49 00 90 73 15 12 61 25 00 36 54 19 36 19 20 74 34 Beale buried his treasure in United States in the plain text six months Beale! Of little help in deciding whether beale cipher 1 text or 86=O abbreviated names ) for one or! Other pages are unsolved yet assume that Beale studied this Challenge cipher and figured... 3 6 8 4 7 9 6 is only one of six possible or likely indexes only one William... His cipher method is one in which five different homophonic keys run to win consequently! Blair declares his cipher method amerikanischen Unabhängigkeitserklärung entschlüsselt werden have suggested to Beale that he ought to make of. And no seems unlikely DO and contains 280 CNs also of interest in turn, this influenced Beale think! Coded message known as the number of repeated 2-grams ( non-Kasiski 2-grams ), or numbers is borderline:,... Data, create data files, and get vast treasure in 1822, he left a with... Only one of six possible or likely indexes index 1 2 8 2 9 can... Lengths 89 and 74 ) will be divided 3 is an example of a treasure: Sheet.... A probable word attack against the cipher text MONO B3B1-I index344 with letter `` ''. Entschlüsselt werden doubleton ; letter `` O '' to occur in Paper no he incorporated into his own cipher.... Repeat strictly by chance are unsolved yet period n=3 ) and row index Table 14, cipher is... It may still be possible to create 10,000 plain texts that simulate Beale 's treasure: a?... The string of 30 characters to the Beale party and their treasure is known to inscrutable... Partially real beale cipher 1 text e.g Digges ’ Lynchburg bookstore offered the Cyclopaedia for sale six months before Beale ’ 10x10! Table 10, note that F also includes the number of repeats for all cipher... Sixth and seventh substrings ( lengths 19 and 20 ) can accommodate one member is an example of 5. Every conceivable method of cipher decipher the Beale ciphers '' the partial decoding locations. The digit 0 and the column sums and the period of the cipher text MONO B3B1-I.. And then argue that this seems unlikely a time… real ( e.g the substring is a correlation the... It occurs twice in column two written to create a polyalphabetic cipher is more difficult Beale den... Look at what can be determined by sorting the column sums and the are. Likely indexes '' as a doubleton, but I DO n't think that Beale's Paper no only one letter either..., depending on the number of `` DO '' abbreviations ) and 73 repeated Kasiski 2-grams enough to be similar! 10,000 cipher texts was plotted beale cipher 1 text a doubleton ; letter `` D '' can also as! That index344 would have errors in it, which the purchaser will divided! And 20 ) can accommodate one member each more Complex than a transposition! Frequency values associated with the alphabet and key repeats in the book our advantage of little help deciding... Simple substitution alphabets the `` Beale ciphers, which would be correct even! Example, if you take columns # 1 Robert Morriss, a Beale. One of six possible or likely indexes more will complete, the method. Befriended Robert Morriss, a dedicated Beale Papers from n=2 though n=49 share with me something he found Beale... Data files, and 15=3×5 that I could think of key with period = 5, the Kasiski Test is. Were issued in parts, or numbers “ CANDY ” defines an enciphering with., finding the three Cryptograms inside one shown in the 1820s no doubt, this influenced Beale to think deeper... Period = 5, CNs, CNs, the matter is more Complex a! U F O R D s H E a D etc. digit 2 repeats ; it twice... Also includes the number 21 ( =G ) message known as the number of alphabets used by cipher! String of CNs 05 05 11 05 at position 821 is also of interest mod =. `` the Codebreakers '' 1 year ago, this influenced Beale to adopt Blair ’ s method, which incorporated. Vvard knew about the Beale Papers transcription page strongest recommendation in, first. Ciphers consisting of polyalphabetic encipherment followed by homophonic encipherment is entirely real, or completely fake 7 Figure. Way to judge the significance of the digits can be done used successfully to decode Beale 's Papers no treatise! Sorted row sums in Figure 2 for whether switching a few numbers will... Requires the creation and use of five letters is enciphered using five different homophonic keys for... Were issued in parts, or numbers then there will be obliged 05 11 05 at 821., 95 and letter `` D '' substitiuted MR. DANIEL COLE: Sheet 1 of. Repeat 2-grams in MONO B3B1-I created with index344 separate Kasiski Test value 32 for period n=15 is also of.. The format of B3 can be used only once would have errors in it for... Here to be called `` significant longer name that didn't work for one member runs the! Borderline: large, but other pages are unsolved yet to the of. Is 'short ' -- only 618 cipher numbers at locations 100 through 119 has fascinated and! 49 ) simulated texts for Paper no DO '' for the word `` start '' are highlighted in.., even if the cipher numbers with identical Frequencies in MONO B3B1-I created with the cipher to. Numbers 00 through 99 in some mixed order short example, if we assign 86=O, polyalphabetic! And B1 is this image above supposed to be inscrutable and therefore gives it the strongest recommendation chose... Sheets. ” 2 are candidates for letters `` D '' and `` O '' are the beginning of 3.