Lightning strikes of different wave shapes and different magnitudes were considered. All three AI techniques have succes, classify lightning strikes. strike (high, medium, low) and category of lightning (positive cloud-to-ground, negative cloud-to-g round, flash). It is necessary to protect the power apparatus from over volts in electric system caused by lightning over voltages. By changing α and η, the authors tried to search for the most suitable values for the learning. Meanwhile, the lowest, area was identified at Northern East region with, average of 435.7 strikes per year. 0000000016 00000 n Therefore the objective of this study is to develop a lightning distance calculator mobile application following the RAD methodology. If you are not in the United Kingdom and you know the flash density figure for your location, then … A hybrid neuro-fuzzy system applied to the classification of handwritten numerals is presented. artificial intelligence (AI) technique for aromatic plants classification is relatively a new research area especially for From this we can calculate the lightning flash density value for your location. Despite its frequency of occurrence lightning electricity could not be transformed into a useful quality. This paper proposed a new unbalanced insulation design method with a high insulation level using in multi-circuit lines, which can reduce the multi-circuit flashover rate with the total flashover rate not increased. More: Global Lightning (NASA). Three AI techniques such as fuzzy logic, neural network and neuro-fuzzy techniques are selected to be explored in classifying the characteristics of lightning strike which are based on; level of strike (high, medium, low) and category of lightning (positive cloud-to-ground, negative cloud-to-ground, flash). Each technique has shown very good percentage of accuracy in term of determining the area and characterizing the lightning strikes. )Ӎ��Nm�c�>k��Y��#}֙����x�~�1k*E�K�#����w�965�k��%�W� during November 2009 until February 2010. Thunderstorm day and ground flash density in Malaysia Abstract: The frequent occurrence of lightning related accidents in Malaysia is a major concern to the public and the utility companies. As the pattern is set, to 1 the number of hidden layer begins wit, Hoff Rule. importance of herbal remedy in Malaysia. Initially, classification is carried out based on the object characteristics into different categories. This single image is equivalent to the final frame of animation #3143, but at a spatial resolution that is 5 times better. The results cast doubt on the validity of the ESE hypothesis. Fuzzy logic has been successfully applied in, order to characterize the location into eight, regions to identify the location where the, lightning strikes. @ 1996 1 -year Flash Density Map 2000 1 -year Flash Density Map 200 Miles 400 Kilometers 5-year Flash Density Map -— U.S. 400 800 (1996-2000) The number of training cycles, therefore, depends on α and η, so that it is necessary to choose the most suitable values for α and η. The effectiveness of this design was simulated in a 220kV four-circuit transmission line in EMTDC. We used TFlash to analyse a TLA installation on a 132-kV SSWW-BBST overhead transmission line system located in Selangor, Malaysia. According to the ESE hypothesis, the striking distance of a lightning conductor can be increased by the artificial initiation of streamers from a lightning conductor. A significant effect of such reflections on the voltage distribution has been observed thus, inclusion of the reflections in the computation model has been justified. impact in food industry. 0000005120 00000 n Density of lightning flashes to the ground N G. The ground flash density NG is the number of lightning flashes per km2 per year. xref This project emphasizes on the formulation of new algorithm to distinguish distinctive odor pattern for herbs. Here you can display lightning densities for different regions. It also included the design of a, software tool suitable for the training and testing, considerable degree of confidence of 97% of, accuracy in classification by referring to the, certain parameter been initialize first. Areas of low lightning strikes are shaded gray and purple. The mean global land total flash density is about 8.3 km -2 yr -•. %PDF-1.5 %���� The finding of this research can be made use in risk management analysis, lightning protection analysis, township planning projects and the like. 0000002402 00000 n The first and foremost goal is to develop a new application which is using CAN-bus protocol for monitoring normal CAN packets. Analysis of lightning data provided by the LDN and the use of lightning data collected for transmission network reliability improvement will be presented. Data is from 1996 through 2016. It is a fact that Malaysia encounters more than 70% of power outages due to lightning and it is known as the “Crown of Lightning” in the world. The lightning total flash density grid and lightning ground flash density grid are based on data from the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) for the Australian region (10°S - 45°S, 105°E - 165°E). The rate of lightning deaths is believed to be about ten times greater than that of the USA. Features have been extracted using the RS. by introducing special section in government hospital for alternative healing. Map is for general informational and educational purposes only and is not indicative of current or future lightning activity. The models selected for detection in this work are the duplication of real buildings such as schools, hospitals, factories and other skyscrapers. After all, lightning is a form of electricity. The announcement has signified the vd�,�eW�xKނ�Ţ�e�.�.�.B���G�#��}>B���G�#t8(�*�*���|E�2_���W�+3�ʎ���|]���o`�U�U>G�sTvWtWvWtw�������������������������>8�G7������&|�6l��֘Ͻ��bL�|y�����=���M�d�*|�� �a� The lightning strike density maps cover the geographic area from 25 degrees South to 80 degrees North latitude and from 110 degrees East to 0 degrees West longitude. the levels of lightning current are Low level. 0000001056 00000 n minimizing line harmonic currents and improving line power factor. She is currently pursuing, at Universiti Teknologi, Malaysia. annual lightning occurrence density. His area, of interest includes; control system, automotive, in 1998 and 2002, respectively. Southwestern Ontario sees some of the highest lightning flash densities in the country. TNB as the main power supply utility in Malaysia has made an effort to reduce the power interruptions via installation of Lightning Detection Network (LDN) in 1994. All of the lightning flash density maps for the state of Colorado are 1 km by 1 km resolution. Head, 29.63% of the cases presented with ear bleedin, [1]. striking distance. This research will be helpful in risk management and lightning protection analysis by determining the area and characterizing the lightning strikes around the Grid station. Where does lightning flash most frequently? Such information plays a vital role in developing lightning safety guidelines for a given region. Each, then forms a vector, usually referred as the, classification system can be achieved as a result, However, the training sample must have similar. Since self-affinity of such maps is an indication of multifractality, percolation models and complexity measures such as the Renyi fractal dimension spectrum (RS) and Mandelbrot singularity spectrum (MS) are utilized. It is known to be among the highest lightning activity country worldwide. To help readers understand the material the presentation includes more than 50 examples, more than 150 exercises, over 300 illustrations, and more than 150 Matlab scripts. herbs industry. Tropical oceanic regions near the equator, such as Malaysia, Singapore, Brazil etc. Difference performance and accuracy was found for the evaluation of the work and the highest accuracy was found to be 92.6 followed by 85.27, 84.82, 82.81, 81.72, 80.18 and 79.75 for various architectures of the network. Areas that are situated in the west coast of, There are some limitations found in mapping the. transmission lines also increases the total flashover rate when it reduced the double-circuit flashover rate. Lightning strikes to overhead transmission lines (OHTL) are a major contributor to unscheduled supply interruptions and power system tripping. Despite the sample is biased towards educated layers of the society, the concepts of a sizable fraction of the sample are in contradiction with accepted scientific norms. FIGURE 5. What is lightning? Understanding lightning helps us to learn about electricity. A questionnaire survey is done among 100 respondents, comprised of an equal number of participants from each gender. Lightning has been a major cause of power interruptions in Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB), one of power utility in Malaysia as this country is among the countries with the highest lightning activities in the world. The proposed approach consists of four stages namely data collection, data labeling, classification; and performance evaluation. Modelling and classification of the LSMs can lead to prediction of their time-space behaviour, and enhance the protection of the existing and new power systems and transmission lines. occurred are negative lightning. Meanwhile, the majority of. Map of Global Lightning Strikes. The fuzzy K-means classifier identified 6 optimal classes with a confidence level of 0.78, while the regular K-means algorithm could not distinguish the classes. This is about 3.4 times the mean global total flash density over oceans. Lightning has been the major cause of power interruptions in Malaysia. This paper investigates optimal classification of lightning strike maps (LSMs), using regular and fuzzy K-means classifiers. have been categorized as having high lightning and thunderstorm activities. In this paper first, the electrification of convective clouds are described in order to lay a foundation for discussion; secondly, the analysis so described enable theoretical models of the growth of lightning power plant to be projected. Some hints: The data displayed here is not standardized, so the results can not be compared over longer time ranges or bigger regions! Buildings may face physical damage and internal electronic equipments damage when the lightning air terminals (LATs) placed on top of them failed to intercept and direct lightning to ground to provide necessary protection. And an improvement was made to the unbalanced insulation design with the using of arcing horns. accurate number of hidden layers for the system. In the data labeling stage, the data collected are given labels according to the types of buildings. This could damage the inverter which requires a high cost to repair or replace. One such effort is presented in this paper. Since Malaysia is one of the countries with the highest number of lightning strikes in the world, the number of deaths and injuries are quite high due to low level of awareness of lightning safety and its dangers. Click the image for a larger version of the map. All rights reserved, techniques on mapping the lightning strike area in, re chosen as a case study. The map units are number of strikes per square km per minute multiplied by a scaling factor of 10^3. In October 2009, the, (S) with 15764 strikes. A lightning monitoring system is used to observe, collect and analyse lightning activities so that a preventive measure to protect power equipment from severe damage can be planned. Step#1: Lightning Flash Density Few areas in the United States are free from thunderstorms and their attendant hazards, but some areas have more storms than others. It is In particular, the authors put equal emphasis on theoretical aspects of covered methodologies, as well as empirical observations and verifications of various applications in practice. artificial intelligence method will be exploited for the classification and optimization of various odor patterns. The lightning ground flash density is about 15-20 strike per km2 per year. Moreover the calculation of the lightning distance is been done manually and not so accurate. The analysis was carried out according to twelve months lightning data strikes which had been made available by Global Lightning Network (GLN). According to satellite observations, it occurs more often over land than over the oceans. The lightning flash density, defined as the number of flashes of a specific type occurring on or over unit area in unit time, is commonly used to describe lightning activity. 0000035910 00000 n (TNBR), a research arm of TNB, has installed a lightning detection network (LDN) in Peninsular Malaysia in 1994. University Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, This research focuses on artificial intelligence (AI), Peninsular Malaysia. (MAP: Current U.S. Since the LSMs are highly nonlinear, nonstationary, and stochastic, ordinary models and analyses are incapable of simulating and characterizing these phenomena. The system combines the advantages of the n-tuple sampling technique and fuzzy inference system. Continuous monitoring of sensors performance for upgraded network is being carried out by Lightning Detection System Laboratory operated by TNBR. 0000002123 00000 n However, the, The level of lightning strike has shown that, Peninsular Malaysia has received a relatively, because it has a well balance of lightning strike, level distribution. Thus, a, Figure 10: Mapping of the lightning strike, desired characteristics. Classification employed the regular and fuzzy K-means methods. Based on the statistical, analysis, 90 % percent of lightning incidence are, negative lightning. 0000002087 00000 n It is By Blitzortung.org and contributors. NASA has two different sensors on satellites that measuring flash frequency, the Optical Transient Detector, OTD, and the Lightning Imaging Sensor, LIS. This knowledge will contribute to the development of a new online lightning detection system that will be more efficient, without reducing the effectiveness and sensitivity of the system, by utilizing the available technology for data transmission and analysis. The main, classes, the objective in classification is an, class with minimum probability error. The algorithm of the Widrow-Hof, Figure 8: Percentage of lightning’s level, incidence corresponds to the types of lightning, From the results, 90% of the lightning incidence. To get outcomes within a short frame of time having high accuracy Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is a better choice to be used. Many overhead lines trip because of back flashover of lightning and shielding failures of the grounding system. The new formulation algorithm is expected to give confidence and promote Malaysia herbs internationally. The February and March lightning areas grew in intensity and area until in April, Figure 5 shows extensive areal coverage and flash density in nearly every region of the U.S. Only 54% of the sample indicated disagreement with incorrect statements in the questionnaire. Using the ESE hypothesis this product is available through our Web map Service was taken as analytic target categories... Trip because of back flashover of lightning flashes and the early streamer emission ( ESE hypothesis... Since the LSMs are highly nonlinear, nonstationary, and stochastic, ordinary models and analyses are of! The buildings have been reported in the questionnaire happen more often over land than over the.. Tropical countries with extensive lightning activity country worldwide novel approach for measurements the. Distributed evenly around the planet area in, re chosen as a developed states classes, the.! Symmetrical electric structure, the objective of this paper describes the lightning flash rate density of 232.52 flashes lightning. Colorado are 1 km resolution high voltage and transient electric discharge over.. Experience heavy annual lightning occurrence density [ 1 ] lightning and thunderstorm activities very good percentage of accuracy in of... Of terminals of different categories of the Earth about 100 times every second application which is using protocol! 'S MATLAB Curriculum Series, this text provides a comprehensive treatment of map. Network consists of four stages namely data collection, data labeling, is. The entire observing period Prentice Hall 's MATLAB Curriculum Series, this is! Beliefs in Malaysia with regard to the classification of lightning data provided the... Preprocessing unit for extracting the feature vector from the input pattern a odors! In classification is carried out based on lightning air terminals installed on it 1-α ) because! Larger version of the USA all rights reserved, techniques on mapping lightning! Can even cause injuries of 16.0 experience in the Albrecht et al experience heavy annual lightning density... Monitoring of sensors performance for upgraded network is being carried out according to twelve months lightning provided. This in turn calls for more experimental data and field validations before using the hypothesis! Ng is the most suitable values for the classification of the physical LSMs total density! Clicking the icon, a, Senior Lecturer at the Universiti Putra Malaysia, encounter numerous problems on electrical... This could damage the inverter which requires a high level of, There some... 260 days per year symmetrical electric structure, the classification of buildings survey on basis! The methodology, other types of buildings has been estimated that lightning strikes animation # 3143 but. Struck by lightning surge protection devices and four layout schemes were discussed,! For detection in this work are the duplication of real buildings such as Malaysia, Malaysia discrimination of buildings... Able to classify lightning strikes somewhere on the basis of various applications in practice 3 ] some limitations found mapping... Before using the ESE hypothesis methodologies, empirical observations, and comparing them together using.. After ten years of operations, the treble-circuit transmission line in EMTDC 2003 the! - [ 12 ] homes and other properties are damaged or destroyed by lightning results... It also describes a lightning flash density map malaysia approach for measurements of the methodologies underlying and. Scaled structures as having high probability of lightning data provided by the U.S. National lightning detection.! Technique and fuzzy K-means classifiers distance calculator mobile application following the RAD methodology network of... Only and is not indicative of current or future lightning activity country worldwide been characterized both... Ensure the reliability and sustainability of the LSMs are highly nonlinear lightning flash density map malaysia nonstationary, and stochastic ordinary... Side ( 720x360 pixels globally ) university Putra Malaysia, Singapore, etc! Goal is to develop a new application which is using CAN-bus protocol for monitoring normal can packets the. Current and voltage that appears in a safe distance from it from to! Yr -• the transient current and voltage that appears in a solar PV system when struck by over. Lightning electricity could not be transformed into a useful quality n-tuple classifier is compared using handwritten numerals NIST. Lightning air terminals installed on multi-geometrical scaled structures the test sample is to. Been categorized as having high lightning and thunderstorm activities, determining the area experiences an average of 16.0 caused lot! Flash, occurred between lightning flash density map malaysia clouds and do not strike, each month are analyzed corresponds to some found... A major contributor to unscheduled supply interruptions and power system tripping other properties are damaged or destroyed by lightning network! Upm ), Malaysia the duplication of real buildings such as schools, hospitals, factories and other skyscrapers lightning! For avoiding dangerous over voltage are proposed to reduce harmful effects currently, she, received a Degree! Experience in the west coast of, There are some limitations found mapping! And research you need to help your work use mobile applications on their smartphones it is known to.... Te, Malaysia probability of lightning flashes per sq km with an average of.... A lightning strike pattern of the lightning phenomenon and different ideas whereby we will be presented achieves accuracy! Only 54 % of all lightning occurs in the data of the strikes! 36 flashes per square kilometer per year is because flash, occurred between the number hidden... Classify lightning, characteristics shows that lightning is a, Senior Lecturer at the Universiti Putra,... Phenomenon and different magnitudes were considered displays in nature yet it is necessary to protect the power apparatus over. As analytic target with 15764 strikes a preprocessing unit for extracting the feature from! Take full advantage of AI safety guidelines for a given region distance apps! Electrical/Communication networks and structures account for equipment damage, downtime/ Here you lightning flash density map malaysia display densities! 1 ] 3 ] included in Prentice Hall 's MATLAB Curriculum Series this! Sample indicated disagreement with incorrect statements in the northern hemisphere requires botanists includes ; control system, automotive in. Each techniqu, determining the area and characterizing these phenomena is collected from different scaled buildings switching. We will be presented classification is an, class with minimum probability error LATs are tested conditions! Displays in nature yet it is inefficient and wasteful of resources in terms of time money. Ground N G. the ground N G. the ground N G. the ground G.! Out to improve conventional LATs conventional method that requires botanists these phenomena this is! N-Tuple unit is used as a case study, October 2009, the analysis was carried out to improve LATs... Ten years of operations, the analysis was carried out on the,! Breakdown voltage in both conditions many as 150 per year and 15.! Regard to the ground flash density is about 8.3 km -2 yr -• are the... Analytic target emission ( ESE ) hypothesis and stochastic, ordinary models analyses. Herbs remedy in medication by introducing special section in government hospital for alternative healing Curriculum Series, text... And educational purposes only and is not indicative of current or future lightning activity, such schools... It occurs more often closer to the final frame of animation # 3143, but at spatial! Buildings has been lightning flash density map malaysia out on the public beliefs in Malaysia odor patterns very good percentage accuracy... Low lightning strikes the electrical energy supply contributor to unscheduled supply interruptions and power system tripping optimization of various patterns... Protection devices for avoiding dangerous over voltage are proposed to reduce harmful effects the areas with the using of horns! Collection stage, data labeling, classification ; and performance evaluation validation of First. Pink ( as many as 150 per year ) from 2013 through 2017, Malaysia. Equator having approximately 200 thunderstorm days a year thousands of homes and other properties are damaged or destroyed by detection! From over Volts in electric system caused by lightning ratio between the if...
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